Words beginning with ㄱ, Part 2

More basic vocabulary from 한국어 1. HOW MANY CAN I TYPE BEFORE MIDNIGHT

고맙다 to be grateful
고브다 to be hungry
고향 hometown
공부하다 to study
공원 park
공항 airport
과일 fruit
귀 ear
극장 theater
기차 train
기침 cough
기침 하다 to cough
김치 kimchi
꽃 flower
끝나다 to be over, to end
끝내다 to finish

... apparently all of them, not including the grammar points. :D

Words beginning with ㄱ, Part 1

I've forgotten a lot of vocabulary so I'm going to start working through the vocabulary lists in the back of my textbooks. These are from 한국어 1, so consider them very basic.

가게 shop, store
가깝다 to be near, close
가다 to go*
가르치다 to teach
가족 family
감기 a cold
감기에 걸리다 to catch a cold
값 price
강의 lecture, class
같이 together
거기 there, that place
거리 street
걷다 to walk
걸어 가다/오다 to go/come walking
계시다 to be, to exist (honorific form)

* I need to do a post on the deictic verbs, because the English and Korean are not exact equivalents.


This is a somewhat confusing conjunction because it doesn't have a good English equivalent. It marks the preceding clause as background information. Here are some examples from Using Korean:

저 한국 가는데 뭐 부탁할 거 없어요?
I'm going to Korea; do you have anything to ask of me?

[Here, going to Korea is background information that gives context for the question that's the main point of the sentence.]

부탁드릴 게 한 가지 있는데 좀 들어 주시겠어요?
I have one favor to ask of you; would you do it for me?

어제 백화점에 갔었는데 세일을 크게 하더라구요.
I went to the department store yesterday and saw that they were having a big sale.

Sometimes the "main point" is left out because the listener can infer it themselves, as in:

잡채 만드는데... (와서 먹어라.)
We're making jap chae... (come over and eat it.)

In this case, the polite ending 요 can be added if the social situation calls for it. In the previous post, 김 과장 told Jane that he couldn't help her with her computer problem by saying:

지금 회의하러 가야 하는데요.
I have to go to a meeting now.

He didn't have to directly say "I can't help you" because that's obvious from the context.

Anki File

I've uploaded the Anki file here. You may have to reset the review information, since I think Anki will have stored when I last reviewed those cards. I'll announce here when I've updated the file.

어떻게 하지요?

Oh. Hai.

제인: 김 과장님, 시간 있으시면 이것 좀 도와주세요.
김 과장: 어떻게 하지요? 지금 회의하러 가야 하는데요.
제인: 큰일 났네. 컴퓨터에 문제가 생겼는데요.
김 과장: 수환 씨에게 부탁해 부세요. 수환 씨가 컴퓨터실에서 근무한 일이 있어요.
제인: 아, 맞아요. 고마워요.

Highlight for translation:

[Jane: Mr. Kim, could you help me with this if you have some time?
Manager: What should I do? I have to go to a meeting now.
Jane: I have a problem. There's something wrong with the computer.
Manager: Wy don't you ask Soo-whan? He used to work at the computer lab.
Jane: Ah, that's right. Thank you.

No vocabulary list this time because I'm exhausted.

Countries and nationalities

Here are some names of countries. You can refer to someone from that country by adding 사람, for example 일본 사람 "Japanese person".

한국 Korea
일본 Japan
중국 China
영국 England
독일 Germany
스페인 Spain
러시아 Russia
아일랜드 Ireland
프랑스 France
말레이시아 Malaysia
미국 America

The story that the slur "gook" came from 국 may not be true.


Some vocabulary that is useful when asking directions.

길 street
버스 정류장 bus stop
육교 pedestrian overpass
지하도 underpass
골목 byway
횡단보도 crosswalk
쪽/똑바로 가다 to go straight
건너다 to cross
나가다 to go out
나오다 to come out
올라가다 to go up
내려가다 to go down
꺽다 to turn
삼거리 three-way intersection
사거리 four-way intersection
돌아가다 to make turns

This isn't a good explanation of what 길 and 골목 mean. I vaguely remember discussing this in class, and I think 길 is a normal street, and 골목 is a small side street that cars don't go down. But I apparently didn't think to jot this down in the margins of my book and I'm not sure. Does anyone know?

한국은 가을이 아름답다.

한국은 가을이 아름답다.

A sentence that uses both the topic particle (은/는) and the subject particle (이/가). Using Korean has a nice section on when to use 은/는, and I'll probably post more from it later because it's helpful.

한국 Korea
가을 autumn, fall
아름답다 beautiful

Highlight for translation:

[In Korea, autumn is beautiful.]

발가락에 낀 때보다 못한 것.

발가락에 낀 때보다 못한 것.

A saying that means "you're nobody."


발가락 toe
끼다 gather, hang over, envelope
때 dirt, filth, grime
보다 than
못하다 to be inferior, worse than
것 thing/object

Highlight for a literal translation:
[You're worse than the dirt between my toes.]

(While double-checking on some of these words on Yahoo.co.kr, I came across this amusing entry:

a fart in a colander
침착하지 못한 사람, 덜렁이 (출처:숙어)

The Korean doesn't seem to have anything to do with farts or colanders. In this situation I think a more literal translation might help some people stay out of trouble...)


LJ really should explain this somewhere, because it's kind of confusing.

I will not get any comments that you leave on LJ.

The LJ version of this journal isn't a normal account; it's syndicated feed. It's not a "real" account.

If you leave me a comment on the LJ account, the odds are that I won't get it. I don't get notified because I don't own the account. Additionally, feed accounts don't store entries forever. Eventually your comments will be deleted.

If you want anybody to see your comment, follow the link to the Dreamwidth entry.

For beginners, part 3.

안녕하십니까? 저는 덱사스대학교 학생입이다. 이름은 박성수입니다. 학교 기숙사에 살고 있습니다.

Try translating this paragraph. You should be able to once you know the vocabulary. The construction used in "살고 있습니다" is described in the previous post.


안녕하십니까 hello (super polite)
저 I (polite)
덱사스 texas
대학교 college, university
학생 student
이름 name
기숙사 dormitory
살다 to live
-은/는 topic particle
이다 to be (copula)
있다 to be

Highlight for translation:

[Hello. I am a student at the University of Texas. My name is Park Seongsoo. I am living in the school dorm.]

Sorry for not updating for a few days. I've been really busy, and by the time I got home I just wanted to do something brainless like watch Doctor Who. :D

있다, -고 있다

As mentioned before before, Korean has two verbs meaning "to be." I covered 이다 and briefly mentioned 있다. 이다 can be thought of as something you are, and 있다 something you do.

For example, if I want to say "I'm at home," I would use 있다: 집에 있습니다. I'm not a house; I'm at my house. Does this make sense? I can dig up more examples if anyone wants them.

-고 있다 is a construction that can be added to an action verb to make it ongoing or habitual. Here are some examples from Using Korean:

학교에 오고 있다.
He's on his way to school.

한국에 살고 있습니다.
He's currently living in Korea.

아침으로 빵을 먹고 있습니다.
She's been eating bread for breakfast.

(Okay, I modified the last two to avoid the honorific forms, which might be too much for now...)

You have been arrested.

거짓말 lie
검사 prosecutor
경찰 police officer
경찰서 police station
국제 변호사 international lawyer
국제 전화 international call
모르다 to not know, to be ignorant
몰라보다 to not recognize
범죄 crime
변호사 lawyer
가고가 나다 an accident happens
사실은 in fact, to tell you the truth
섭섭하다 to be sorry, sad
실수 mistake
울다 to cry
잊다 to forget
죽이다 to kill
큰일나다 to be in big trouble
후회하다 to regret

By the way, I put all the vocabulary words and grammar points into an Anki file. Is anyone interested in it? I could easily upload somewhere.

For beginners, part 2.

In the last post, 가 and 나 discussed classroom furniture. Here is another dialog from the same textbook on a similar theme: verifying that yes, you have successfully identified an everyday object.

If you understand the grammar in the last post, you should be able to read this dialog. Try doing so before looking at the translation.

가: 이것은 시계입니까?
나: 네, 시계입니다.
가: 이것은 구두입니까?
나: 아니요, 구두 아닙니다. 그것은 운동화입니다.

이것 this
그것 that
시계 clock, watch
구두 dress shoes
운동화 sneakers
아니다 is not
네 yes
아니요 no (polite)

Read more... )

Highlight for translation:

[가: Is this a clock?
나: Yes, it is a clock.
가: Are these dress shoes?
나: No, they are not dress shoes. Those are sneakers.

전에 잠깐 만났었어요.

전에 잠깐 만났었어요.

전 before
잠깐 a little while, a moment
마나다 to meet

English translation: [I had met him briefly before.]

More vocabulary for talking about the weather

맑다 to be clear
불다 to blow
흐리다 to be cloudy
차다 to be cold
낮다 to be low
봄 spring
겨울 winter
기온 temperature
낮 daytime
도 degree counter
바람 wind
섭씨 Celsius
화씨 Fahrenheit
스팀 steam, heat
비 rain (비가 오다 to rain)
눈 snow (눈이 오다 to snow)
구름 cloud (구르이 끼다 to get cloudy)
일기예보 weather forecast
따뜾하다 to be warm
무덥다 to be sultry

마크: 날씨가 많이 시원졌지요?

마크: 날씨가 많이 시원졌지요?
민지: 네, 정말 시원졌어요. 벌써 여름이 끝나고 가을이 됐네요.


날씨 weather
많이 very, plenty, much, many, etc etc
시원하다 to be cool in temperature, to be refreshing, to be pleasing and satisfying
정말 indeed, in fact, truthfully, etc etc
벌써 long ago, yet, already
여름 summer
끝나다 end, close, be finished
가을 fall, autumn
되다 to become

English translation:
마크: The weather is nice and cool, isn't it?
민지: Yes, nice indeed. Summer is already over and fall has begun.

From Klear's Integrated Korean: Intermediate 1. This isn't the textbook series that I've studied from until now, so sometimes they assume I know grammar that I don't and I have to try to figure it out. If I misunderstand something, please leave me a comment on Dreamwidth!


나비 butterfly
소 cow
거미 spider
모기 mosquito
사자 lion
파리 fly (insect)
까치 magpie
개미 ant
새 bird
게 crab
돼지 pig
곰 bear

More vocabulary from 한국어 1, most from the "learn how to read hangeul" chapters.

Around the house

가구 furniture
비누 soap
벽 wall
부엌 kitchen
집 house
빨래 laundry
숟가락 spoon
냉장고 refrigerator
층 floor (as in level)
침대 bed

Picking some domestic vocabulary out of 한국어 1's glossary. One thing that I really dislike about this textbook is that it doesn't have much vocabulary at all. It really needs more.

Believe it or not, this is all of the vocabulary for things around the house that I found in it.


This suffix is similar to the "past tense" suffix –었-. When used with descriptive verbs, it conveys a more distant feeling than –었-.

옛날엔 날씬했었어요.
I used to be slender.

When used with action verbs, it can mean:

An event that occurred prior to another, past-tense event—that is, if your point of reference is already in the past tense, you can use it to describe an action that happened before that. In this way, it's similar to English past perfect.

전화했을 때 이미 떠났었어.
I had already left when you called.

Or it can be used for actions leading to situations that have been discontinued. Compare the following sentences.

결혼을 했습니다.
I got married (and still am).

결혼을 했었습니다.
I was married before.


This verb suffix is one used to express the past tense. With descriptive verbs, it denotes a past state:

날씨가 아주 포근어요.
The weather was quite nice and warm.

(Note that 하다 is showing its irregular conjugation again.)

With action verbs, it can mean a past action, as in:

나는 공을 찼다.
I kicked the ball.

Or it can mean a present state that has resulted from a past, completed action, as in:

나는 결혼했다.
I got married.
I am married.

Which of these two—got married, or am married—depends on the context. Using Korean also gives 잘 생겼다 as another example of this suffix used to describe a present state. It uses the past tense with the verb 생기다 "be created, formed" to describe the present state "is handsome."